Selected Bibliography on Banking and Public Investment

Kenneth W. Umbach

Note: this bibliography was compiled during preparation of a report for the California Research Bureau in 2001.  I have made a few edits  below, but have not otherwise updated it.  There is much here that should be of interest to anyone working in the area of banking and public investment, including many superb resources available online for free.

Books, Articles, Reports, Speeches


Items specific to the Community Reinvestmente Act (CRA) are in a separate subsection, below.

Allen, Chris; Dan DeSimone; and Kathy Tyson, eds.  State Treasury Activities & Functions 2000-2001.  Lexington, Kentucky:  National Association of State Treasurers (NAST), 2001.

Anderson, Mark.  “Interest Rate Cuts to Hammer Bank Profits,” Sacramento Business Journal, September 28, 2001.

Angelides, Philip (California State Treasurer). “Sustainable Investments for Our Future,” Remarks at the Milken Institute Conference on "Financing Our Global Environmental Future," Los Angeles, March 22, 2001.  Posted at

Avery, Robert B.; Raphael W. Bostic; Paul S. Calem; and Glenn B. Canner. “Trends in Home Purchase Lending: Consolidation and the Community Reinvestment Act.”  Federal Reserve Bulletin 85 no. 2 (Feb. 1999).  Posted at

Avery, Robert B., and Katherine Samolyk.  Bank Consolidation and the Provision of Banking Services: The Case of Small Commercial Loans.   [Washington, D.C.:] Federal Reserve Board, December 2000, Working Paper 01-1,

Berger, Allen N.; Anil K. Kashyap; and Joseph M. Scalise.  “The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been,”  Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2 (1995), 55-218.  A substantial portion of the paper is devoted to statistics on the U.S. banking industry, 1979-94.

Berger, Allen N.; Anthony Saunders; Joseph M. Scalise; and Gregory F. Udell.  “The Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending,” draft paper (version reviewed for this paper dated May 1997).

Blackwell, David W., and Drew B. Winters.   “Local Lending Markets: What a Small Business Owner/Manager Needs to Know.”  Quarterly Journal of Business and Economic 39, no 2 (Spring 2000).

California.  State Auditor.  State of California: Statement of Securities Accountability of the State Treasurer’s Office December 31, 2000.  Sacramento: the Auditor, June 2001; report 2001-008.

California.  State Treasurer.  The Double Bottom Line: Investing in California’s Emerging Markets.  Sacramento: Treasurer’s Office, May 2000,

California Banker’s Association and Carpenter & Company.  State of the Industry: Joint Report on the Condition of California Commercial Banking.  Published by the authoring organizations, located in San Francisco and Irvine, respectively, 2001.

Cole, Rebel A.; John D. Wolken; and R. Louise Woodburn.  “Bank and Nonbank Competition for Small Business Credit: Evidence from the 1987 and 1993 National Surveys of Small Business Finances.” Federal Reserve Bulletin 82, no. 11 (November 1996).

Crippen, Dan L.  “Federal Subsidies for the Housing GSEs,” CBO testimony before the Subcommittee on Capital Markets, Insurance, and Government Sponsored Enterprises, Committee on Financial Services, U.S. House of Representatives, May 23, 2001.  (Available on the CBO Web site.)

Dotson, Betsy.  “Collateralization of Public Deposits,” Government Finance Review 9, no. 3 (June 1993).

Eisenbeis, Robert A.; Frederick T. Furlong; and Simon Kwan, editors.  Financial Modernization and Regulation: A Special Issue of the Journal of Financial Services Research.  Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Fabozzi, Frank J., editor.  Issuer Perspectives on Securitization.   New Hope, Pennsylvania: Frank J. Fabozzi Associates, 1998.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.  DOS [Division of Supervision] Manual of Examinations Policies.  “This Manual of Examination Policies has been developed primarily for the benefit of the field examiner, although it will also be useful to Regional or Washington Office staff members. It explains the policies and examination objectives of the Corporation and the Division of Supervision pertaining to safety and soundness examinations in a concise, understandable and usable format. The Manual is also available to bankers and the general public upon request.”  (From the Foreword.)

Federal Reserve System Board of Governors.  Report to the Congress on the Availability of Credit to Small Business.  Submitted to the Congress pursuant to section 2227 of the Economic Growth and Regulatory Paperwork Reduction Act of 1996.  Undated, but apparently 1997 or 1998.

Federal Reserve System Board of Governors.  Summary of Commentary on Current Economic Conditions by Federal Reserve District (The Beige Book).  Various dates.  Series for 2001 available at

Graham, Benjamin, and David Dodds.  Security Analysis.  N.Y.: Whittlesey House, 1934.  (This has been republished by McGraw-Hill.)

Greenspan, Alan (Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board).  Testimony on condition of the U.S. banking system, before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate, June 20, 2001.  Also see appendix to the testimony.

Gup, Benton E.  The Bank Director’s Handbook: The Board Member’s Guide to Banking & Bank Management.  Chicago: Irwin, 1996.

Hackbart, Merlin, and Robert Stafford Johnson.  State Cash Balance Management Policy.  Lexington, Kentucky: Council of State Governments, 1975.

[Joint HUD-Treasury Task Force on Predatory Lending.]  Curbing Predatory Home Mortgage Lending.  U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Treasury, June 1999.  Available at  The citation cannot be verified, and was drawn from press release, as the posted version of the document (PDF file) is missing cover and title page.  

Keeton, William R.  “Are Mergers Responsible for the Surge in New Bank Charters?” Economic Review (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City), First Quarter 2000.  Available in pdf form via

Keeton, William R.  “The Transformation of Banking and Its Impact on Consumers and Small Businesses,” Economic Review (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City), First Quarter 2001.  Available in pdf form via

Kendall, Leon T., and Michael J. Fishman, editors.  A Primer on Securitization.  Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2000 (paperback edition; copyright 1996).

Kulish, Nicholas, and Jacob M. Schlesinger.  “How Fannie Mae Beat Effort by Adversaries to Rein it In.”   Wall Street Journal, July 5, 2001.  Description of political and lobbying activities that maintain support for GSE mortgage programs.

Larson, M. Corinne.  An Elected Official’s Guide to Investing.  Chicago: Government Finance Officers Association, 1996.

Larson, M. Corinne.  An Introduction to Collateralizing Public Deposits for State and Local Governments.  Chicago: Government Finance Officers Association, 1996.

Larson, M. Corinne, ed.  A Public Investor’s Guide to Money Market Instruments.  Chicago: Government Finance Officers Association, 1994.

LePage, Andrew.  “Lots of Interest,” Sacramento Bee, October 3, 1999.  Article on the time deposit program.

Levonian, Mark E.  “Changes in Small Business Lending in the West,” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Economic Letter, 97-02 (January 24, 1997).

Levonian, Mark, and Jennifer Soller. “Small Banks, Small Loans, Small Business.”  FRBSF Weekly Letter 96-02 (January 12, 1996).

Litan, Robert E., with Jonathan Rauch.  American Finance for the 21st Century.  Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1998.  A version is available for browsing via

Mayer, Martin.  The Bankers: The Next Generation.  N.Y.: Truman Talley Books/Dutton, 1997.

Mayer, Martin.  The Fed: The Inside Story of How the World’s Most Powerful Financial Institution Drives the Markets.  N.Y.: The Free Press, 2001.

Meyers, Forest E.  Basics for Bank Directors.   Kansas City: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, [1998?].  Available in pdf form via

Miller, Girard, with M. Corinne Larson and W. Paul Zorn.  Investing Public Funds, second edition.  Chicago: Government Finance Officers Association, 1998.

Mollenkamp, Carrick; Paul Beckett; and Jathon Sapsford.  “Bank of America Quits ‘Subprime’ Loans, Latest Casualty of Worsening Economy.”  Wall Street Journal, August 16, 2001.

Moller, Rosa Maria, Ph.D.  Report on Small Business Credit Availability.  Sacramento: California State Library, California Research Bureau, February 1996.

National Association of State Treasurers. State Treasury Activities  Functions, 2000-2001 edition.  Lexington, Kentucky: NAST, 2001.

National Association of State Treasurers (NAST): also see under Allen, Chris, ed., above.

National Association of State Treasurers Special Task Force on Local Government Investment Pools.  Local Government Investment Pools.  Chicago: NAST, 1995.

Nolle, Daniel E.  “Banking Industry Consolidation: Past Changes and Implications for the Future.”  Working Paper No. 111, April 1994, presented at “The Financial System in the Decade Ahead: What Should Banks Do,” A Conference of The Jerome Levy Economics Institute.  Available via

Sapsford, Jathon.  “As Loan Defaults Rise, Banks Shift Some Risk to Individual Investors.”  Wall Street Journal, July 23, 2001.

Shaw, Joy C.  “Declining U.S. Treasury Yields May Sink Mortgage Securities.”  Wall Street Journal (online edition), September 4, 2001.

Spong, Kenneth.  Banking Regulation: Its Purposes, Implementation, and Effects, Fifth Edition.  Kansas City: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 2000.  Available in pdf form via

Stojanovic, Dusan; Mark D. Vaughan; and Timothy J. Yeager.  “Is Federal Home Loan Bank Funding A Risky Business for the FDIC?”  The Regional Economist (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis), October 2000,

Tavakoli, Janet M.  Credit Derivatives: A Guide to Instruments and Applications.  N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

Teweles, Richard J., and Edward S. Bradley.  The Stock Market, 7th Edition.  N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

U.S. Comptroller of the Currency.  An Examiner’s Guide to Problem Bank Identification, Rehabilitation, and Resolution.    [Washington, D.C.: the Comptroller], January 2001.  Available in pdf format at

U.S. Comptroller of the Currency.  Comptroller's Handbook.  Selected topics, including Liquidity, Mortgage Banking, Community Bank Supervision, A Guide to the National Banking System, Interest Rate Risk, and Asset Securitization.  Washington, D.C.: the Comptroller, various dates.  Available at

U.S. Congressional Budget Office.  Assessing the Public Costs and Benefits of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.  Washington, D.C.: CBO, May 1996.  Available on CBO Web site.

Zehner, Andrew L., and George A. Valais.  Linked Deposits: Leveraging for Economic Development.  Chicago: Government Finance Research Center of the Government Finance Officers Association, 1990.

Sources Specific to Community Reinvestment Act (CRA)

Benston, George J.  “It’s Time to Repeal the Community Reinvestment Act.”  Today’s Commentary (Cato Institute), September 28, 1999.

Benston, George J.  “The Community Reinvestment Act: Looking for Discrimination That Isn’t There.” Policy Analysis No. 354, October 6, 1999.

Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.  A Guide to CRA Data Collection and Reporting.  January 2001.  Available at

Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.  A Banker’s Quick Reference Guide to CRA.  Dallas: FRBD, undated;

Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.  “A Guide to Small Bank Public Performance Evaluations under the Community Reinvestment Act,” Perspectives, Second Quarter 1997,

Gramlich, Edward M.  Remarks at the CRA and Fair Lending Colloquium, Boston, Massachusetts October 23, 2001, 

Gunther, Jeffrey W.  “Should CRA Stand for ‘Community Redundancy Act’?”  Regulation 23, no. 3 (2000),

Haag, Susan White.  Community Reinvestment and Cities: A Literature Review of CRA's Impact and Future.   Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, April 2000.  This paper, which lists and summarizes a large range of CRA-related literature, is described as “A Discussion Paper prepared for The Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy.”  It is available via

Litan, Robert E.; Nicolas P. Retsinas; Eric S. Belsky; and Susan White Haag.  The Community Reinvestment Act After Financial Modernization: A Baseline Report.   U.S. Department of the Treasury, April 2000.  This is available at the U.S. Treasury Web site report page,

McKinley, Vern.  “Community Reinvestment Act: Ensuring Credit Adequacy or Enforcing Credit Allocation?”  Regulation 17, no. 4 (1994),

Mendez, Fred.  “The Big Bank World of CRA, Community Investments [Newsletter] (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco), April 2001,

Seidman, Ellen.  “Challenges to Measuring CRA Performance,” remarks to Fair Lending and CRA Colloquium, Newport, Rhode Island, June 17, 1999.  At the time, Ellen Seidman was Director, Office of Thrift Supervision.  Available via OTS site,

U.S. Federal Reserve System.  Board of Governors.  The Performance and Profitability of CRA-Related Lending: Report by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, submitted to the Congress pursuant to Section 713 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999.  July 17, 2000.  Posted at

Data Compilations

Also see Web sites listed in following section.

California.  Department of Finance.  California Statistical Abstract.  Sacramento: the Department, annual.  Especially Section L, “Banking and Finance.”  This document is posted at the department’s Web site,

California.  State Treasurer's Office.  Pooled Money Investment Board Report.  Monthly.  Recent issues are available at the Treasurer’s Web site, LAIF page,

California.  State Treasurer's Office.  Pooled Money Investment Board: Annual Report.  Issued at end of each fiscal year, which ends in June.

Web Sites

Banks on the Internet,  California banks on the Internet,

California Bankers Association,  The membership of this organization overlaps but is not identical to that of the California Independent Bankers.

California Code of Regulations,   Banking-related regulations, under the purview of the Department of Financial Institutions, appear in Title 10.

California Department of Financial Institutions,   Financial Statistics,  Banking-Related Sites

California Independent Bankers (sponsors of AB 2805),  CIB is an affiliate of Independent Community Bankers of America (ICBA). Links to regulatory and other federal banking-related agencies are provided at a related page,

California Public Employees Retirement System (CalPERS),

California State Teachers Retirement System (CalSTRS),

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC),  Bank Data: Individual Banks,  Institution Directory,  CRA ratings:  Quarterly Banking Profile:   Reports of  Condition and Income (Call Reports) and Thrift Financial Reports (TFRs), http://WWW2.FDIC.GOV/call_tfr_rpts.   Quarterly Banking Profile, published approximately 75 days after the end of each quarter,   Regional Outlook,  Also see for additional links to FDIC data and publications.

Federal Home Loan Bank System,

Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC),  FFIEC Interagency CRA Rating Search, – purportedly searches all under all four supervisory agencies, Federal Reserve, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Office of Thrift Supervision.  This should be the easiest site to use if you are not sure which is the applicable oversight agency, but it appears to be very incomplete or to have problems that result in not finding information for some or many institutions.   HMDA Aggregate Reports (lists mortgage lenders with home or branch office by MSA),  The site also offers a vast array of detailed information down to the census tract level (latest available data for 1999, as of June 2001).

Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco,  Index to FRBSF Weekly Letter:

Federal Reserve Board of Governors,  CRA ratings,    The Twelve Federal Reserve Districts,  The various districts offer many publications and data sources.  Note especially the San Francisco and Kansas City regions.    Statistical releases and historical data:   Beige Book information (compilations and observations from the districts) is available online.  For 2001, see

Financial Markets Center,  Quoting its own description, “The Financial Markets Center is an independent, nonprofit institute that provides research and education resources to grassroots groups, unions, policymakers and journalists interested in the Federal Reserve System and financial markets.  Through its work, the Center seeks to promote democratic values, accountable public institutions and improved living standards for ordinary citizens.”   Publications and resources posted at FMC encompass banking as well as many other topics.

National Credit Union Administration,  Individual credit union information:

U.S. Comptroller of the Currency,  CRA information: Comptroller's Handbook – Safety and Soundness: Comptroller's Handbook, Compliance: 

U.S. Office of Thrift Supervision,  CRA information:   See above, under Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, for link to thrift financial reports.

Woodstock Institute,  Policy research on CRA, fair lending issues, and community development.